Copying what I said in the meeting here, as it was right at the end:
When the background running is disabled, then that package isn’t allowed to receive broadcast intents (such as boot_completed, which is the standard way for apps to launch themselves at startup), and when its window is closed then the app is force stopped. that stops the ‘normal’ ways for apps to start, but a lot of them put a lot of effort into launching themselves any way they can. Certainly an app or its services can be launched from another app, or via some background push notification service if you have one of those running though MicroG or something. The trouble with hacking around with that stuff too much is if we deviate too much from how android normally works, then innocent apps will stop working properly.