Create image of complete Xperia 10 ii Android system, installed apps, preferences, etc. berfore Sailfish X install?

Is it possible to create an image of an Xperia 10 ii Android system including installed apps, preferences, etc. from Linux (Debian) before a Sailfish X install? Does the OEM boot loader have to be unlocked before the backup takes place? I am aware that there are some backup possibilities with ADB, but I would like to do a complete backup similar to:
$ sudo dd if=/dev/nvme0n1 | gzip -c > ~/data/backup_nvme0n1.img.gz
Any ideas?